The Endangered Species Act is one of the most successful environmental laws in U.S. history and is America’s primary tool for protecting biodiversity. Its purpose is to prevent the extinction of our most at-risk plants and animals, increase their numbers, and restore them to a full recovery. Currently, the Act protects more than 1,900 species.
STRENGHT OF THE ACT
Very few species have gone extinct once granted protection under the Act.
The longer a species is listed under the Act, the more likely it is to be recovering.
Species with “critical habitat” designation under the Act are twice as likely to recover than those without this designation.
Bald Eagle – increased from 416 to 9,789 pairs between 1963 and 2006
Whooping Crane – increased from 54 to 513 birds between 1967 and 2006
Kirtland’s Warbler – increased from 210 to 1,415 pairs between 1981 and 2005
Peregrine Falcon – increased from 324 to 1,700 pairs between 1975 and 2000
Gray Whale - increased from 13,000 to 26,635 whales between 1968 and 1998
Grizzly Bear – increased from 224 to 500+ bears between 1975 and 2005
Source: Center for Biological Diversity
May 18th is Endangered Species Day. What endangered species are you most passionate about saving?
Hypnotizing isn’t he? Meet the Siau Island tarsier, the newest animal species to be designated as critically endangered on International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN)’s Red List of Threatened Species. Inhabiting a small Indonesian island, this saucer-eyed primate has to keep its eyes on two big threats – an active volcano that could wipe our its habitat at any moment and islanders that have a keen taste for tarsiers (locals regularly serve “tola-tola” as a popular snack). The Siau Island tarsier’s critically endangered status sounds an alarm…calling attention to the possibility to its imminent demise.
The world’s most comprehensive inventory of plant and animal conservation status, the Red List classifies species into seven categories, ranging from “least concern” to “extinct.” As you can imagine there is a plethora of scientific data that goes into carefully defining these categories – we’re talking endless pages of graphs, charts and confusing jargon. Here’s my simple, layman’s language interpretation* of IUCN’s species categories.
*my status descriptions are in no way endorsed or approved by the smart volunteer force at IUCN. IUCN’s categories and criteria specs can be read in detail here.
LEAST CONCERN (LC) | Species in this category are widespread and abundant. Let’s continue to take good care of these guys, everyone!
NEAR THREATENED (NT) | Watch out! Plant and animals included in this category are close to qualifying for a threatened category in the near future.
VULNERABLE (VU) | An observed or suspected population reduction means this species needs extreme care and support to protect it from becoming endangered. Being vulnerable isn’t a good feeling, is it?
ENDANGERED (EN) | Facing an extremely high risk of extinction in the wild. It is time to muster up compassion and action RIGHT NOW to save these species!
CRITICALLY ENDANGERED (CR) | A species’ numbers have decreased, or will decrease, by 80% within three generations.
EXTINCT IN THE WILD (EW) | Sadly, these species can only be found in captivity or naturalized populations outside their natural range.
EXTINCT (EX) | No longer in existence. Gone. Forever.
Did you ever notice that when it comes to spreading awareness about endangered species, animals get the lion’s share of the attention? Most anyone can easily rattle off five threatened animal species…but can you name a plant species in need of protection?
My 5-year old can. Armed with knowledgement about his current obsession, carnivorous plants, he informed me that his favorite plant (the oh-so-amazing Venus flytrap) was a threatened species and needed our protection. He’s right. As I learned more, my eyes were opened to a whole new world of species in need.
According to the Encyclopedia of Earth, over 8,000 plant species worldwide are officially threatened or endangered – and that number grows daily. Between one-fourth and one-half of all plants are at some risk. In the United States alone, the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service lists 795 plant species as threatened or endangered. A disturbing matter because plants provide essential, life sustaining ecosystems with oxygen, food, medicines, building materials, textiles and habitats. Not to mention their beauty.
Just as it would be deplorable and tragic if, say, chimpanzees became extinct during our lifetime (a loss that is a real possibility, researchers warn), our world wouldn’t be the same without species like the black bat flower, monkey puzzle tree…or the Venus Flytrap.
My carnivorous plant-loving son with his purple pitcher plant, another threatened species.
Want to become famiiar with endangered plants in your area? Visit the U.S. Department of Agriculture’s Threatened and Endangered List and select your state.
ARKive.org: Bringing endangered species to life
Hello, We’re ARKive, the world’s only centralized digital library home to thousands of images and films of globally threatened species. We’ve partnered up with Endangered Species Chocolate’s Involved blog to give you a glimpse into the world of ARKive and the amazing imagery and facts you can find on the planet’s rarest species. From the diving feats of the osprey to the tiny baby thorny devil, you can learn about these species and over 13,000 more on ARKive.
Since any reader of this blog likely has a sweet tooth, we thought we’d highlight some of the sleepiest critters on ARKive who could have definitely used a few Endangered Species Chocolate bars to stay awake…let’s see if you’re not yawning by the end of it!
ARKive’s Top Ten Sleepiest Species
One Wiped Out Fellow! I would be tired too if I were capable of impressive diving feats like the Gentoo penguin who can pursue prey up to 170 meters or 500 feet deep down in the ocean.
A Sweet Sleeper. Although taking a moment to catch up on some sleep here, the arctic fox is usually always on the search for food and amazingly, can reduce its metabolism by half, while still being active, to help conserve energy while on the hunt.
Sprawled Out Slumber. It’s well known that most bears hibernate through the winter months but sometimes it’s worth a reminder how truly unique this process is. Once brown bears enter their hibernation period, they don’t eat, drink, urinate or defecate for up to six months! Could you imagine not getting out of bed for anything for 6 months?
Chameleons Catch Forty Winks It seems as though Parson’s chameleons start off as sleepy critters. With one of the longest incubation periods in the reptile world, it takes a whopping 20 months for a Parson’s chameleon egg to hatch. I guess if I had a nice safe place to sleep, I wouldn’t be in a hurry to hatch either!
Down for the Count. It’s not surprising to catch all these big cats sleeping in the middle of the day. Lions are inactive 20 out of 24 hours a day and reserve their energy for the cool and darker times of day, such as sunrise and sunset, to hunt.
Submerged Snoozer. Manatees need to come up for air approximately every 20 minutes or less, making them the top napping species on the list. Since manatees never leave the water, they don’t experience long periods of slumber like humans and so frequent, short bouts of sleep while resting on the ocean floor are enough for them.
Daytime Dozer. Although most owls are nocturnal, meaning they are active at night and mostly inactive during the day, the little owl is actually diurnal and prefers to do most of its hunting during the day. This little owl, however, seels to have taken the opportunity to catch a few winks before bedtime.
Curled Up to Catch Zzzs… The dormouse is such a sleepy creature that its name is thought to derive from the French word ‘dormir’ meaning ‘to sleep.’ When ready to begin hibernation, which can last up to 7 months, the dormouse enters a state of extreme torpor where its body processes slow to a fraction of their normal rate.
Cat-napping Koala. Another sleepy species, the koala spends a vast majority of its time snoozing away and even when awake, it’s a very sedentary species. you’ll find koalas often catching Z’s while balancing on branches in trees well out of harm’s way.
What a Yawn! Although extinct, we still know some very interesting facts about this species and that while it yawned, the Thylacine could open its jaw wider than any mammal on the planet. Are you yawning yet?
We hope you enjoyed this introduction to endangered species on ARKive. To come face-to-face with more endangered species around the world, visit ARKive today!
Photo image by gareth1953 via Flickr Creative Commons
Bring your backyard to life
As I write, I am listening to the clear, fluted sound of a couple of Black-Capped Chickadees coupled with the metallic chirp of a Northern Cardinal. It’s relaxing, entertaining and satisfying to the nature-lover in me to devote the backyard to the birds. Habitat restoration is vital for wild birds and other wildlife due to commerical and residential infringement on natural areas. Your backyard (or if space is limited – your balcony!) is one place where you can easily make a difference. All you need to do is provide 4 basic elements:
You can help secure a food supply for birds by planting shrubs and trees that produce seeds, fruits, nuts and nectar. This is a sure fire way to make your yard attractive to birds for years to come. Here’s a list to give you planting ideas. Bird feeders (seed, nectar, suet) make it super easy to provide a helping hand to the birds throughout the year. Plus, you can position a feeder in a prime spot for bird watching. Just be sure to place it near a tree or shrub – birds like cover from predators while feeding and a place to perch while waiting for a turn at the feeder.
Water is an important part of your backyard habitat. A pedestal bird bath or shallow water dish placed at ground level will provide the necessary water for drinking and bathing. Replace the water every few days to keep it fresh and clean. Although this is a bit of extra work, it is well worth it. A water source can dramatically increase the number and type of wild birds that visit your yard. Plus it is totally entertaining to watch birds splash around in the water. Be sure to place the bird bath where you can view it from indoors. For more tips on supplying water, click here.
Shelter will turn your yard from a place where birds visit to a place where birds live. Birds need places to hide from predators and the weather. Plant evergreen trees and shrubs that provide year round cover. Large rocks, stumps, ground cover and brush piles offer a welcome haven for ground feeding birds.
PLACE TO RAISE THEIR YOUNG
With more and more destruction of natural habitats, birds are having trouble finding nesting and roosting sites. Bluebirds, purple martins and woodpeckers are struggling to find places to raise their young. Go here to find specifications for birdhouses that will suit the birds you wish to attract. You can put birdhouses up any time of the year; when not in use for nesting, many birds will use them for a place to sleep in cold weather.
Now that you’re a bird nerd…
Once you have your backyard habitat established, treat yourself to a field guide or mobile app (I use iBird) to help you learn about and identify your new feathered friends. You can also participate in the Great Backyard Bird Count to help scientists create a real-time snapshot of where birds are across the continent. On Twitter? Search #birdnerd to see what other bird watchers are tweeting.
Special thanks to my friend, Stephanie, a fellow bird nerd, for the post idea.
Which birds frequent YOUR backyard? Let’s compare birding notes (include your State in the comment to make it more interesting)!
Better late than never
My mind is continously wrapped around chocolate and species conservation. It’s my job and I love it. And you’d THINK that I’d be totally keyed in to all the conservation-minded holidays out there – but they always sneak up on me. Usually, I become aware of these obscure observances the day after the fact. Like World Water Day (March 22) and International Migratory Bird Day (May 14). And wouldn’t you know it – World Turtle Day was May 23rd. I’ve given up too many good writing ideas for fear of being untimely. Watch me now as I bravely and belatedly post about World Turtle Day!
Soft spot for hard-shelled creatures
Turtles and tortoises have been around for more than 200 million years. They obviously are creatures that are meant to stand the test of time. However, over the past 20 years, almost 50% of all turtle species have been listed as threatened. And six out of seven species of sea turtles are threatened or endangered. Since learning these deporable facts, I aim to seek out ways to help.
SEE Turtles saves sea turtles
Combining conservation tourism and volunteerism, SEE Turtles works in Costa Rica, Baja California Sur and Trinidad – vital nessting habitats for endangered sea turtles – to support community-based turtle protection efforts.
You can get involved in a small, meaningful way by purchasing Endangered Species Chocolate’s Save the Sea Turtle Gift Pack. Or you can go big and plan an adventure vacation with SEE Turtles and have a hands on sea turtle saving experience!
Be aware of baby turtles
The U.S. Humane Society urges people to beware of fairs, carnivals, flea markets and pet shops that sell baby turtles. In 1975, FDA’s Public Health and Services Act banned the sale/distribution of turtles less than four inches in length. Despite the ban, baby turtles continue to be sold – an illegal practice that is destructive to both turtles and humans. A practice I recently witnessed at a tourist shop while on a beach getaway weekend. You can bet when I return to the beach this month, I am going to be asking the store owner some hard questions and reporting them. Click here to learn how to report these types of violations to the FDA.
Many turtle species are declining due to the pet trade. Children often lose interest in pet animals obtained on impulse and parents may not be prepared to care for a turtle who can live for decades and grow to be a foot long. Turtles need proper light and temperature, a water filtration system and room to grow. Countless pet turtles die from being kept in inadequate conditions.
Humans, especially young children, are also put at risk by close contact with pet turtles. A major Salmonella outbreak in 2007 that sickened 107 people (mostly children) in 37 states was attributed to pet turtles.
World Turtle Day
May is a busy time for turtles (yes, yes…I know it is now JUNE!). Many have recently emerged from winter hibernation and are beginning their search for mates and nesting areas. May 23rd was designated World Turtle Day in 2000 by American Tortoise Rescue. The day is used to highlight the threats to turtles’ survival and educate about what we can do to protect these quiet creatures. Just like this post, caring and spreading the word is better late than never.
Share your turtle stories! Join me in celebrating a belated World Turtle Day by commenting below.
Mark your calendar. Friday, May 20th marks the 6th year of national Endangered Species Day. This day presents an opportunity to really focus on the importance of protecting plant and animal life. From the downright adorable to the wonderfully weird, each species has a place and purpose on our planet. Thousands of plant and animal species across the world are endangered and on the brink of extinction. Over the years, the Endangered Species Act has provided a much needed helping hand to our natural neighbors.
America enacted the Endangered Species Act in 1973, one of dozens of U.S. environmental laws that were passed in the 1970s. The Act was designed to protect critically imperiled species from extinction – to protect and nurture populations back to full health. It is not a perfect law but it has been hugely successful to many species on the brink. Critical habitats are given a fighting chance under the Act too. Millions of acres of ancient forests, wild beaches, open meadows and sparkling rivers – treasured places that would have otherwise been long since logged out, paved over or built up had it not been for the Endangered Species Act.
Put endangered species and conservation groups in the forefront of your mind this month. Extinction is forever. Protecting our world’s disappearing wildlife and open spaces is a responsibility that needs our focus, compassion and action.
Which endangered species speaks to your heart the most? Let us know by sharing the species you are most passionate about my commenting below.
Have you happened across our new Endangered Species Chocolate ads yet? You’d remember if you did because they are STELLAR! (Me, biased? Never!) The animal photography featured in our “Indulge in a Cause” ads was captured by the camera of Eric Isselée. We were not only drawn to the powerful presence of his images, we were also captivated by his philanthopic mission and compassionate approach.
Eric Isselée’s project, Life on White, aims to document Earth’s endangered animals and insects. Over the past four years, his series of wildlife set against pure white backgrounds has grown to over 10,000 photos of over 450 animal species. Images this special shine a spotlight on these species, thereby raising their public profile and ultimately, helping to ensure their conservation. In addition to capturing images for future generations, Life on White donates generously to animal charities and sanctuaries.
Eric’s team travels worldwide to get their shots. The team insists on the animals being photographed in their own environment (mostly sanctuaries and zoos) so animals don’t suffer any undue stress linked to transport or unknown environments. You can watch for yourself by clicking on Life on White’s “Making Of…” videos. Imagine patiently waiting 72+ hours for a peacock to strut his stuff for your lens. Or clicking away as mischievous monkeys cavort across your portable white backdrop.
This work results in stunning photos that show each animal’s beauty, emotion and personality. Images this vivid and artistic bond the viewer to the animal and create compassion. We love supporting and sharing this work.
Name some of your favorite wildlife/conservation photographers. Have you ever photographed wildlife – what challenges did you face? Share what inspires you visually by commenting below.
Some stories just get inside your head and don’t let go. African Wildlife Foundation’s January announcement of the birth of two white rhinos really grabbed me. Maybe it was the incredibly cute baby calf photo album on Facebook or perhaps I’ve just read the inside of our Dark Chocolate with Hazelnut Toffee Rhino Bar wrapper one too many times. In any case, I was compelled to learn more.
Starting the New Year off on a bright note, two white rhino calves were born in Mosi-Oa-Tunya Park, an incredibly beautiful Zambian widlife refuge. African Wildlife Foundation (AWF) assisted in placing the mothers in the park over a year ago – after all but one of Zambia’s rhinos were killed by poachers. The calves and their mothers are currently under heavy guard by the Zambia Wildlife Authority with support from AWF. When you look at the statistics, it is clear why this protection is imperative:
- 2007 – 13 rhinos killed
- 2008 – 83 rhinos killed
- 2009 – 122 rhinos killed
- 2010 – 333 rhinos killed (Source: Care2)
The disturbing rise in poaching is attributed to increased demand for rhino horn, which has long been prized as an ingredient in traditional Asian medicine. The numbers in the chart above astound and dishearten me. I think that’s why the story of the baby rhino births grabbed me and wouldn’t let go – it’s a reminder that conservation can overcome the senseless damage humans inflict on endangered populations.
What gives you hope?
- RT @JoyfulVegan: But of course, @ESC_Chocolate! :) What better combination is there than saving animals + vegan chocolate? http://t.co/ccQZ…
- RT @AWF_Official: The endangered mountain #gorilla was 1st discovered a little over 100 years ago >> http://t.co/BtvbBZLwb3 #AWFfacts http:…
- #30DayVeganChallenge is a piece of cake when U have chocolate cake. TY @JoyfulVegan 4 mentioning us in UR new book http://t.co/PnNHpXmjl2
- Hu-manatee. "Rescue underway for manatees stuck in storm drain" via @USATODAY http://t.co/Thuv6EhP07 http://t.co/sHCLirAz4F